while in French: Amérique Latine) is the designation for a region in the American continent where most of the population is native speakers of Romance languages, especially Spanish and Portuguese which originated from Latin.
The term Latin America is used to distinguish this region from the Anglo American region which is sometimes used to refer to areas of the American continent where the majority of the population are native English speakers.
In general, the term Latin America is only based on the area on the American continent where the population speaks Spanish or Portuguese, namely Mexico, as well as most of Central America, while South America plus Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico in the Caribbean.
In a narrow sense, Latin America refers to countries and territories in the American continent whose inhabitants are native speakers of Romance languages (a language derived from Latin), such as: Spanish, Portuguese, French, and Creole languages. By definition Latin America also includes territories and former territories of France, namely: Quebec in Canada, Haiti, Martinique and Guadeloupe in the Caribbean, and French Guiana in South America.
Furthermore, for Suraname, the Netherlands Antilles, and Aruba which were included in the Dutch colony, it was often considered not to be included as countries and territories in Latin America. However, the majority of the inhabitants of the Netherlands Antilles and Aruba speak the Papiamento Creole which comes from the Iberian dialect.
The term Latin America, especially for the people of the United States, means "all" the countries located south of the United States, including Belize, Jamaica, Barbados, Trinidad and Tobago, Guyana, Antigua and Barbuda, and the Bahamas where the majority of the population speak English (not Romance language). In the historical context, "Latin America" means all areas of the American continent that were colonies of the Spanish, Portuguese and French kingdoms whose inhabitants spoke languages of Latin origin. In this sense, areas of the Southwest United States such as Florida and Louisiana France also include Latin America.
The distinction between "Latin America" and "Anglo America" is often seen as a distinction that glorifies the legacy of European nations. These two terms do not take into account the fact that parts of the American continent (eg Peru and Guatemala) are inhabited by Native Americans who have their own language. In addition, there are still areas with a strong African cultural influence, such as the Caribbean, parts of Colombia, Venezuela, and coastal areas of Brazil. Etymologically, the term Amérique latine originates from a geopolitical term coined by Emperor Napoleon III of France, who called the terms Amérique latine and Indochine as the goal of French expansion during his reign. Although originally used to help Napoleon's ambition to claim territory in America as belonging to France, the term Amérique latine was eventually used to refer to areas in the American continent whose inhabitants from the 15th and 19th centuries were settlers who spoke Romance languages from Spanish, French, and Portugal. Apart from starting as a political term for Napoleon, the term "Latin America" was also used by Michel Chevalier in 1836 in an article entitled Lettres sur l'Amèrique du Nord. In the United States, the term "Latin America" ("Latin America") has only been used since the 1890s, and has not yet become a general term for the region to the south.
In the United States, the term “Latin America” (“Latin America”) has only been used since the 1890s, and it did not become a general term for the region south of the United States until the early 20th century. Previously, the United States referred to it as "Spanish America" ("Spanish America")
Later, the term "Latin America" became a term equivalent to "Latin Europe", and was used as a common identity for the countries in the Latin American region.
And in Latin America is the only region in the world that experienced a decrease in skills in using English where the average adult who used English compared to 2017 decreased and can be seen from the percentage as follows. agen slot This finding reflects the addition of Bolivia, Honduras, and Nicaragua to the index, all of which score below the regional average, but the main drivers of this decline are Mexico and Brazil, the two most populous countries in the region, which recorded declines in English proficiency. . In the last decade, Latin America has made great progress in ensuring that all children have access to education, but the region still has to face high levels of economic inequality, unstable democracy, and levels. Relations between Latin America & the United States, Until the end of the 19th century, the United States had a special relationship mainly around Mexico and Cuba. In addition, relations with other Latin American countries had little influence on both sides, of which a large number of trade was derived. Apart from Mexico, there is minor migration to the United States, and little American financial investment. Politically and economically, Latin America (apart from Mexico and the Spanish colony of Cuba) was mostly associated with Britain. While the United States had no involvement in the process when the territories in Spain split and became independent in 1820. In co-operation with and assistance from Britain, the United States issued the Monro Doctrine in 1823, warning of the establishment of any additional European colonies in Latin America. when the Napoleonic Wars that flared up in mainland Europe ended in 1815. Napoleon lost and his dream of building a European Empire ran aground. Spain, as one of the imperial coalitions that fought Napoleon, suffered quite a downturn due to the war. This condition brought fresh air to the mainland Latin America which was colonized by Spain since the end of the 15th century.
The independence movement in Latin America is blossoming. In the 1820s, many new states emerged from the former Spanish colonies such as Mexico, Argentina, Chile, Venezuela and others, as well as Brazil's independence from Portugal.
However, the situation in Europe is different. After Napoleon's defeat, the great empires of Prussia, Russia and Austria formed an alliance called the Holy Alliance.
Edward Renehan in The Monroe Doctrine: The Cornerstone of American Foreign Policy (2007) mentions, the goal of forming the Holy Alliance is to restore monarchical power in Europe which was fragile due to Napoleon's attacks and attempts to consolidate. They agreed to extinguish all forms of revolution that threaten efforts to restore monarchy in Europe.
The Holy Alliance's efforts yielded fruit such as restoring the rule of King Ferdinand VII over Spain, quelling rebellions in Italy, restoring the Bourbon monarchy in France and broadly impacting the return of other monarchical powers in Europe.
The US, which is building a reputation as an independent country, sees the independence movement in Latin America as a momentum for unity to jointly escape the grip of Europe.
Seeing the Holy Alliance's move, the US wasn't that worried at first. However, when the alliance planned to return Latin America to the hands of Spain and France, the US began to worry. The US is also concerned about Russia's move to expand its territorial wings to the northwest coast of North America.
Britain, which is not part of the Holy Alliance, also feels threatened if Spain regains control of Latin America. This is because Britain is worried that its trading activities in Latin America will be disrupted if Spain returns to power in the region. Quoted from Encyclopedia Britannica. British Foreign Minister George Canning then proposed a joint US-UK declaration that would prohibit intervention in America, especially by France and Spain.
James Monroe US 5th President at the time, along with former presidents and former Presidents James Madison and Thomas Jefferson agreed with Canning's idea. However, US Secretary of State John Quincy Adams at a US cabinet meeting on November 7, 1823 firmly opposed Canning's proposal. Adams argues that the US should issue its own policies rather than having a coalition with Britain.
Adams' efforts paid off. He succeeded in convincing the cabinet to issue the independent policy he wanted. In an Adams diary, he wanted the US to seriously protest the interference of European powers in Latin America. Conversely, the US will also not interfere in European affairs.
On December 2, 1823, the Adams message was delivered by James Monroe at the annual congress that became known as the Monroe Doctrine as a product of US foreign policy. The content of the Monroe Doctrine is not far from Adams' thought, where there are four basic principles. The contents of the first 2 (two) contain the US promise that they will not interfere in the affairs of European countries, both in matters of war and internal politics. The US agreed not to interfere with European colonial companies that existed at that time. make a change where the Western Hemisphere (America) is no longer open to colonization by Europe Any attempt by European powers to colonize the Western Hemisphere will be interpreted by the US as an act of aggression. The Monroe doctrine is understood by Latin America as a form of support for independence from European influence. However, despite the prohibition of European powers from returning to defend on the American continent, at that time the US actually did not have the military power to enforce the Monroe Doctrine, which still depended on the strength of the British Navy to protect Latin America. So that for nearly 30 years, Monroe's policy was not considered important by Europe.